寻找更肥沃的草原Seeking Greener Pastures

大型国际承包商,特别是欧洲承包商在亚洲、美洲寻找新市场-Large international contractors, particularly from Europe, are seeking new markets in Asia and the Americas

信息来源: 作者:Peter Reina and Gary J. Tulacz 翻译:任敏 浏览数: 发布时间:2014-03-26


大型工程承包商在欧美停滞的市场中上演着你争我抢的大戏,发展中国家诸如北非的大片优质市场则深陷政治动荡的泥淖。尽管如此,承包商们仍然在许多其他的地区发现机遇,并且大部分企业在萧条的市场中保持了自身的平稳。而从另一个侧面来说,正有越来越多的承包商们在国际市场上推陈出新、试水尝鲜。
Large international contractors are scrambling for work amid stagnant markets in Europe and the U.S., while other fertile markets in the developing world, such as North Africa, are mired in political upheaval. However, contractors are finding opportunities in other regions, and most are holding their own even in depressed markets. But it means more contractors are testing new waters in the international marketplace.
 
在全球新市场获得成功的承包商数量与日俱增,恰好解释了这次ENR决定扩充顶级国际工程承包商名录的原因。现在,为彰显承包商队伍在国际市场蓬勃发展的事实,ENR225强排名在今年已经调整至250强。(实际上,1991年以前,ENR全球最大国际工程承包商排名也曾是250强,在1992年才精简为225强。)
The growing number of contractors finding success in new global spots helps explain why ENR has decided to expand its list of top international contractors. Now, the list includes 250 top firms, up from 225, in recognition of the growing number of contractors flourishing in the international marketplace. (The ENR Top International Contractors list had been a Top 250 list until 1991, but it was cut back to a top 225 list in 1992.)
 
最新的ENR最大250家国际工程承包商排行榜,以各家公司过去一年在其所在国以外国家承建项目的营业收入为基础,从而衡量出其在国际商业中的表现。同时,ENR将年度最大全球工程承包商排行榜也扩充至250强,这一排行榜的评价依据是以各家承包商在全世界所有地域的营业收入为准。
On the Top 250 International Contractors list, firms are ranked based on contracting revenue from projects outside of their home countries, measuring their presence in international commerce. ENR also has expanded its Top 250 Global Contractors list, which ranks contractors based on total worldwide contracting revenue, regardless of the projects’ locations.
 
ENR最大250家国际工程承包商2012年境外项目合同额总计为5110.5亿美元,加上其各自在本国内的合同额总计8135.5亿美元,上榜承包商承建的合同总额达到1.32万亿美元。
The ENR Top 250 International Contractors had $511.05 billion in contracting revenue in 2012 from projects outside their home countries, along with $813.55 billion in revenue from domestic projects, for a total contracting revenue of $1.32 trillion.
 
根据年度比较,2013年上榜的前225强国际工程承包商2012年的海外营业收入为5075亿美元,与2012年225强国际工程承包商海外营业收入总额4530.2亿美元相比,增幅为12%。
For year-to-year comparisons, the only revenue considered was from this year’s 225 largest international contractors. This year’s top 225 had international revenue of $507.50 billion in 2012, which represents a 12.0% increase over the $453.02 billion from last year’s Top 225.
 
基于区域市场分析,加拿大市场是今年的大赢家,根据全部上榜250强国际工程承包商的区域业绩表现,加拿大市场国际项目合同增长33.6%。亚洲及澳洲的国际项目合同额增幅为23%,拉丁美洲市场增幅22%,美国市场增幅20%,中东市场增幅9%。而深陷金融困扰的欧洲市场则毫无悬念的增长乏力,增幅仅有0.3%。在非洲,尽管中南非市场份额增长2.5%,但在深受战乱洗礼的北非市场则出现市场下滑,降幅达到10.5%。
On a regional basis, Canadian projects are the big winner, with a 33.6% increase among this year’s Top 225 list. International contracting revenue also was up 23.0% in Asia and Australia, 22.0% in Latin America, 20.0% in the U.S. and 9.0% in the Middle East. Not surprisingly, contracting revenue for the Top 225 contractors was relatively flat in financially strapped Europe, rising only 0.3%. And while contracting revenue rose 2.5% in central and southern Africa, it fell 10.5% in strife-torn northern Africa.
 
新的全球机遇
New World’ Opportunities
 
由于欧洲市场经历长期停滞,很多大型欧洲承包商正在重塑战略。如:总部在英国的贝尔福贝蒂(Balfour Beaty)公司执行总监(CEO)安德鲁·麦克诺顿表示,公司正整合其自身在投资、建设和运营单元所具有的实力,以及旗下设于美国的柏诚(Parsons Brinckerhoff)公司的设计和管理技能,从而提供全生命周期服务。
With European markets working through a prolonged stagnation, many large European contractors are recasting their strategies. U.K.-based Balfour Beatty plc, for example, is combining the design and management skills of its U.S.-based Parsons Brinckerhoff subsidiary with the capabilities of its existing investment, construction and operations units to offer full life-cycle services, says CEO Andrew McNaughton.
 
贝尔福贝蒂战略的一部分,就是在欧洲国家中卖掉旗下业务较为单一的铁路设计公司。麦克诺顿解释说,所有的公司都必须要能够多元发展。
As part of that strategy, Balfour Beatty is selling its rail engineering business in European countries where it has no other businesses. “You have to be in more than one sector,” explains McNaughton.
 
法国布依格集团旗下的布依格建设的总裁兼首席执行官伊夫·加布里埃尔表示,他们同样正在开发“尽可能长的价值链上的技术和经营”,从而推进本地及海外业务发展。他将公司在美国迈阿密获得5.15亿美元房地产开发合同归功于公司的“定位综合、高附加值工程”战略。布依格通过PPP(公私联营模式)在迈阿密承建港隧道工程从而在欧洲本土企业越来越青睐的美国市场获得入场券。
France’s Bouygues Construction SA also is developing “skills and businesses over the longest possible value chain” to boost local and international business, says chairman and CEO Yves Gabriel. He attributes his firm’s win of a share in a $515-million real estate development contract in Miami to its strategy of “positioning ourselves on complex, high-value-added projects.” Bouygues used its presence on a public-private partnership (PPP) for the Miami Port tunnel project to gain entry to the U.S. market, which is attracting increasing numbers of European-based firms.
 
麦克诺顿表示,随着该区域市场建设需求的不断增加,美国市场将很有可能在2013年底成为贝尔福贝蒂公司的目标建设市场。同时他补充:作为一个“稳定的,资源驱动型市场”,加拿大将继续成为贝尔福贝蒂公司的目标重点市场。
The U.S. “is probably going to become our target construction market at the end of the year” as construction demand picks up in regional markets, says McNaughton. As a “stable, resource-driven market,” Canada remains a key focus for Balfour Beatty, he adds.
 
万喜集团总部在巴黎的万喜建设公司总裁,让·罗西说:“十有八九,美国将开始很多主要工程的建设。”万喜目前正在以PPP模式承建美国肯塔基州和印第安纳州之间承建俄亥俄东区道路、桥梁及隧道网工程。
“In all likelihood ... many major projects will be launched in the United States,” says Jean Rossi, president of Paris-based Vinci Construction SA. Vinci is working on the road, bridge and tunnel Ohio East End Crossing PPP projects between Kentucky and Indiana.
 
意大利的莫亚泰克尼蒙公司(Maire Tecnimont)对美国正在开发的页岩油气非常感兴趣。莫亚泰克尼蒙公司总裁法布里奇奥·迪·阿玛托说:“更低价格的额外燃气供应使北美市场对于我们所有的油气、石化及肥料业务板块大额投资都极具吸引力。”
Italy’s Maire Tecnimont is particularly interested in the shale oil and gas developments under way in the U.S. “Additional gas supply volumes at lower prices are making the North American gas market really appealing for large downstream investments in each of our business units: oil and gas, petrochemicals and fertilizers,” says Chairman Fabrizio Di Amato.
 
总部在瑞典的斯堪斯卡(Skanska)总裁乔安·卡尔斯特姆表示,美国市场的“明确向好”也在欧洲公司之间引起了日益激烈的竞争。他补充道,欧洲公司通过在当地收购公司而在美国实现大幅增长。
The U.S. market “has definitely gone up,” attracting increasing competition from European firms, says Johan Karlström, CEO of Sweden-based Skanska. The European presence in the U.S. has grown substantially through local acquisitions, he adds.
 
欧洲之伤
European Blues
 
欧洲承包商对于美国市场的热情一部分源于其所在的大西洋彼岸日益艰难的市场条件。布依格总裁加布里埃尔表示,“在东欧的投资受到欧盟资金削减及国民预算吃紧的双重影响”,但是基于这些国家对于基础设施的需求,在中长期来看仍有好的预期。
Europeans’ interest in the U.S. stems partly from the more difficult conditions on their side of the Atlantic. “Investment capacity in Eastern Europe is suffering from a reduction in European Union funding and stricter national budget constraints,” notes Gabriel. But demands for infrastructure “offer good prospects in the medium term.”
 
柏克德(Bechtel)旗下总部在伦敦的柏克德城市基础设施总裁皮特·道森说,在东欧,柏克德在顺利获得阿尔巴尼亚、科索沃的大订单后,将把市场目标锁定在主要的高速公路上。但他同时表示,“现在的机会确实比以前要少”。
In Eastern Europe, Bechtel Inc. is targeting major highways following successful large contracts in countries, including Albania and Kosovo, says Peter Dawson, president of London-based Bechtel Civil Infrastructure. But “the opportunities are scarcer than they once were,” he adds.
 
柏克德在东欧的经历并不是面面俱好。由于政府预算限制,柏克德终于在十年困境之后于今年在“双方共同意愿”下终止了罗马尼亚特兰西瓦尼亚(Transylvanian)高速公路交钥匙工程。道森惋叹,415公路的道路建设仅完成“很小一部分”。
Bechtel’s Eastern European experience is not all good. Because of limited government budgets, Bechtel this year terminated “by mutual agreement” its Transylvanian motorway turnkey contract in Romania after 10 troubled years. Only “a small proportion” of the 415-kilometer job was completed, laments Dawson.
 
布依格的加布里埃尔表示,在西部欧洲,法国的市场需求在巴黎区域仍然保持稳健,但在其他省份已出现疲软。尽管,布依格有条件的获得了马赛环城高速公路的大项目。
In western Europe, French demand in the Paris region remains strong but is weaker in the provinces, says Gabriel. However, the firm has conditionally won a major contract for the Marseilles beltway.
 
即使已经在英国长期扎根的承包商,前景也不容乐观。贝尔福贝蒂CEO麦克诺顿表示,由于“在大型基础设施项目的显著减少”,贝尔福贝蒂的英国市场在去年缩水近20%。政府提振基础设施建设的努力受到欢迎,但起效时间太长。“焦点还是要放在当地市场上”,他补充说。
But even for general contractors with a long U.K. presence, conditions are not rosy. With a “significant reduction in large infrastructure” work, Balfour Beatty’s U.K market has shrunk by 20% over the last year, says McNaughton. Government efforts to boost infrastructure are welcome but too long term. “The focus needs to be more on the local market,” he adds.
 
斯堪斯卡总裁卡尔斯特姆说,为筹备英国2015年大选已有越来越多的基础设施投资对话正在展开,“但我们还没有看到任何实质的内容。”正在蓬勃发展的英国是斯堪斯卡在斯堪的纳维亚以外欧洲的主要市场。卡尔斯特姆说,特别是挪威正在“基础设施上投入大笔资金”,但是来自其他欧洲承包商的竞争也异常激烈。
There is increasing talk about infrastructure investment in the run-up to the 2015 U.K. elections, says Karlström, “but we haven’t really seen it materialize.” The U.K. is Skanska’s main European market outside Scandinavia, which is booming. Norway especially is spending “a lot of money on infrastructure,” he says, but competition from other Europeans is intensifying.
 
在中东和北非(MENA)市场,欧洲承包商同样发现了新的动向。贝尔福贝蒂CEO麦克诺顿说:“我们发现增长的回归”,甚至迪拜也“开始重新出现增长”。柏克德城市基础设施总裁道森在发现很多区域商机,特别是在铁路和城市快轨方面,但是他也表示市场的竞争相当激烈。一个柏克德联营体上个月(2013年7月)在沙特首都利雅得中标一个含两条利雅得城市快轨建设的100亿美元交钥匙工程。
European firms also are finding renewed activity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). “We are seeing growth coming back,” and even Dubai “is growing again,” says McNaughton. Dawson sees many regional opportunities, particularly in rail and metros, but the market is highly competitive, he says. A Bechtel consortium last month clinched a $10-billion turnkey contract for two lines of Riyadh’s new metro system.
 
万喜在中东的主要市场在卡塔尔,目前万喜在此地参与了一条20亿美元城市轨道的工程项目。万喜控制项目49%的股份,与由政府资金支持的卡塔尔迪亚尔共同组成合资企业,由卡塔尔迪亚尔主导。布依格建设的总裁兼首席执行官加布里埃尔说,受到筹办2022年世界杯的刺激,卡塔尔“始终十分活跃”,“但我们也面临更强的竞争与挑战”。
Vinci’s primary Middle Eastern market is Qatar, where the firm has a share in a $2-billion metro contract. Vinci controls 49% of the joint venture with the sovereign wealth fund Qatari Diar, which leads the metro consortium. Fuelled by preparations for the 2022 World Cup, Qatar “remains very dynamic,” adds Gabriel. “But we face strong competition.”
 
尽管如此,一部分由于欧洲银行危机的冲击,中东市场并不是100%充满希望。韩国现代工程建设公司国际业务计划团队的总经理金永俊表示,目前中东及北非(MENA)市场是“EPC承包商的主要市场”,但是从欧洲银行或其他金融机构为项目融资已变得日益艰难,导致这一地区很多重要项目的计划搁浅。
Not all is promising in the Middle East, thanks in part to the European banking crisis. MENA is “the major market for [engineer-procure-construct] contractors these days,” says Kim, Yeon Joon, a manager on the international business planning team for Korea’s Hyundai Engineering & Construction Co. However, he says project financing from European banks and other financial institutions has become more difficult, halting plans for many major projects in the MENA region.
 
2008年的全球金融危机对中东市场造成了严重打击,这种负面效应至今仍可被感知。科威特国家哈拉菲(Kharafi)集团商业开发部主任约瑟夫·马斯瓦德说,“政府将项目延期,银行停止向承包商提供融资支持”。同时,他说,虽然银行和金融机构现在重新开始放款,但是“获得金融支持的资质要求变得更加严格”,并且在很多时候,借贷成本飞涨的惊人。
The global financial crisis in 2008 hit the Middle East hard, and its effects are still being felt. “Governments delayed projects, and banks halted providing financial support to the contractors,” says Yousef Maswadeh, director of business development for Kuwait’s Kharafi National. He says banks and financial institutions are lending again, but “the qualifications for obtaining financial aid have become more stringent” and, in many cases, the costs of borrowing have skyrocketed.
 
此外,很多中东北非(MENA)地区的承包商都感觉到来自欧洲承包商日益激烈的竞争。土耳其ANT雅皮(Yapi)公司董事默罕默德·奥卡指出“在土耳其,每过去一年,欧洲建筑公司对土耳其市场的兴趣都在不断俱增”
Further, many MENA-region contractors are feeling more competition from European contractors. “European construction firms [are showing] greater interest in Turkey every passing day,” says Mehmet Okay, board member of Turkey’s ANT Yapi.
 
尽管如此,奥卡表示他的公司在俄罗斯和独联体国家感受到较少的压力。比如,在莫斯科的国际城市中心,ANT雅皮公司正在建设一栋85层的OKO城市大厦。同时,这家公司还在为俄罗斯索契2014冬季奥运会建设面积13万平方英尺的宾馆及公寓。
However, Okay says his firm is feeling less pressure in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. For example, ANT Yapi is building the 85-floor OKO City tower in the Moscow International City Center. The firm also is building 1.3 million sq ft of hotel and apartment space in the run-up to Russia’s 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.
 
北非的政治动荡已导致很多大项目停滞。科威特国家哈拉菲(Kharafi)集团商业开发部主任马斯瓦德表示除埃及以外,哈拉菲集团做到了远离骚乱纷争。他同时指出,“目前埃及的政治局势将使很多以BOT和PPP模式进行开发的大型基础设施项目延迟执行”。
Political unrest in North Africa has caused a pause in many major projects. Maswadeh says Kharafi National managed to avoid the turmoil except in Egypt. “The current political situation in Egypt might delay implementation of mega-infrastructure development projects” that rely on build-operate-transfer and PPP financing programs, he says.
 
利比亚是区域中另一关注焦点,但有一些承包商相信稳定已经开始回归市场。印度邦扎劳埃德集团主席阿杜尔·邦扎说,“在利比亚,我们的经营确实感到了动乱的降温,在此市场我们既承建有油气工程也有基础设施工程。我们很高兴的发现这个国家的形式在好转,并且我们已经开始调配人员重启项目”。他同时表示,邦扎劳埃德集团希望在风险项目上成为领军承包商。
Libya is another area of concern, but some contractors believe stability is beginning to return to the market. “Our operations did see a setback with upheaval in Libya, where we had both oil-and-gas and infrastructure projects. We are, however, happy to note that the situation is improving in the country, and we have started mobilizing manpower to resume projects,” says Atul Punj, chairman of India’s Punj Lloyd Group. He says that Punj Lloyd prefers to be the lead contractor on projects when risk is an issue.
 
东亚继续成为建筑市场的重地。万喜建设公司总裁罗西说,“整个东盟(ASEAN)区域都是我们公司增长的重要市场,特别是越南、印尼、缅甸和马来西亚。”
East Asia remains a construction powerhouse. “The entire ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] zone is a growth area for our companies, in particular Vietnam, Indonesia, Burma and Malaysia,” notes Vinci’s Rossi.
 
柏克德集团将市场聚焦在交通和基础设施“没那么优先”,而以自然资源产业为重点的区域。柏克德的道森指出,“中国市场机遇在减少”,这部分源于“地方竞争力”的增强。
Bechtel focuses on natural-resource sectors in the region as transportation and infrastructure are “less of a priority,” he adds. “The number of opportunities in China has dropped” partly because of the growth of “local competence,” he says.
 
对于柏克德集团而言,印度既是其设计和采购基地也是一个本土化市场,特别是在炼油厂和石油化工方面。但是道森也表示“市场利润相当微薄”。同时他说,金砖四国(BRIC)——巴西、俄罗斯、印度和中国市场总体上对承包商而言都“非常艰难”。
For Bechtel, India is a global engineering and procurement base as well as a local market, particularly in refineries and petrochemical. But “margins are very thin,” says Dawson. The BRIC countries—Brazil, Russia, India and China—are, in general, “very tough” for contractors, he adds.
 
印度的拉森&土布罗(Larsen & Toubro)公司高级执行副总裁苏布拉马尼亚恩(Subrahmanyan)表示,“受到城市化和基础设施增长的不可逆驱动,印度和中国将继续是最重要的建筑市场”,“印度,中国和中东”国家的基础设施严重缺乏,加上政府政策的供给意愿,将进一步快速发展”。
“India and China will continue to be the most important construction markets, driven primarily by the irreversible forces of urbanization and infrastructure growth,” says S.N. Subrahmanyan, senior executive vice president of India’s Larsen & Toubro Ltd. India and China, as well as the Middle East, “are expected to grow rapidly in face of the huge infrastructure deficits faced by such countries, coupled with their governments’ policy initiative to deliver.”
 
尽管如此,苏布拉马尼亚恩警告国际承包商在积极发展多地业务的同时应注意国家间政策环境的较大差异。他说“多地域且设置高壁垒的市场也会有更可观的政策风险”。
However, Subrahmanyan warns that many international contractors rushing to find geographic diversity have to be aware of widely different regulatory climates from nation to nation. There are “considerable regulatory risks of working in diverse geographies with relatively high entry barriers,” he says.
 
贝尔福贝蒂的麦克诺顿发现印度的电力和铁路都是“令人着迷的市场”。但是打入印度市场是一个“长时间的游戏”。其他公司也对此市场持长期态度。万喜的罗西解释说,在印度这样对基础设施需求极大的国家,我们需要了解印度文化才能把自身定位到对的项目上。
McNaughton finds India to be “a fascinating market” in power and rail sectors. But tackling the Indian market is a “very long game.” Other firms are also taking a long view on the market. “We are getting to learn about Indian culture in order to position ourselves on the right projects in a country where infrastructure needs are enormous,” explains Rossi.
 
拉美继续吸引着国际的目光,尽管竞争十分激烈。柏克德的道森说,这个地区的很多行业领域都有良好的市场机会,对柏克德充满吸引力。柏克德设在智利的办公室是其最大的工程办公室之一,同时柏克德对巴西,哥伦比亚和秘鲁等国市场也持乐观态度。
Latin America continues to attract growing international interest, although the competition is tough. The region offers many opportunities across a range of sectors that are interesting to Bechtel, says Dawson. While one of Bechtel’s largest engineering offices is in Chile, it is also optimistic about other countries, including Brazil, Colombia and Peru.
 
万喜的罗西表示,万喜对于在墨西哥,哥伦比亚,秘鲁和智利等地开展经营充满兴趣,在智利,万喜正在修建一条“世界上最大的地下铜矿”隧道项目。
Vinci is particularly interested in developing businesses in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Chile, where it is building a tunnel for “the world’s largest underground copper mine,” according to Rossi.
 
布依格2013年进入了巴西市场,他与当地合作伙伴共同赢得了里约热内卢的一个酒店项目。布依格的加布里埃尔同样对秘鲁,哥伦比亚,特立尼达和多巴哥等市场表示了浓厚兴趣。贝尔福贝蒂的麦克诺顿说,巴尔福贝蒂已有“一个小团队”在巴西侦查项目管理、投资和项目运营维护的市场机会。
Bouygues entered the Brazilian market this year, winning a hotel contract in Rio de Janeiro with a local partner. Gabriel also expresses interest in Peru, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago. Balfour Beatty has “a small team” in Brazil scouting out project management, investment and operations-and-maintenance opportunities, says McNaughton.
 
如果将非洲写成一个国际建设市场,非洲在各公司管理者心目中的预期已经提高。万喜的罗西基于公司在贝宁获得的管道项目,在多哥获得的港口项目和在喀麦隆获得的大桥项目,表示非洲的“增长依然保持强劲”。
Once generally written off as an international construction market, Africa has risen in executives’ expectations. “Growth has remained very robust,” notes Rossi, citing among Vinci’s wins pipelines in Benin, a port in Togo and a bridge in Cameroon.
 
柏克德对非洲市场“看涨”,道森认为,当地政府正在日益变得民主并且“愿意为他们的人民作出投入”。他相信“在未来10年中,我们将可以像10到15年前谈论中东市场那样讨论撒哈拉以南的非洲”。
Bechtel is “very bullish” about Africa, where governments increasingly are becoming more democratic and “want to invest in their people,” says Dawson. “In 10 years, we will be talking about sub-Saharan Africa in the same way we talked about the Middle East 10 to 15 years ago,” he believes.